Option 2: Wal-Mart stores are now being sued for gender-based discrimination in hiring practices, promotions, and pay. Students are shown a chart from a recent newspaper article comparing the salaries of men and women at Wal-Mart in different occupational categories along with the percentage of each job category that is male or female. Students discuss whether they believe this chart is evidence of gender-based discrimination. (If they do not, they are asked what type of evidence they would need to see to be convinced that a company was practicing illegal discrimination against women.) This discussion often leads to many students suggesting that the women at Wal-Mart just weren't working as hard or were not as smart as the male employees. This is used to launch into an exploration of research-based findings about gender differences and careers along with myths about working women.
According to Hart's view of the Social Fact Thesis, then, a proposition P is legally valid in a society S if and only if it satisfies the criteria of validity contained in a rule of recognition that is binding in S. As we have seen, the Conventionality Thesis implies that a rule of recognition is binding in S only if there is a social convention among officials to treat it as defining standards of official behavior. Thus, on Hart's view, "[the] rules of recognition specifying the criteria of legal validity and its rules of change and adjudication must be effectively accepted as common public standards of official behaviour by its officials" (Hart 1994, p. 113).
Obtaining a Masters degree sometimes involves writing and presenting a thesis paper, which includes the outcomes of the student’s thesis work plus references to current and prior research in the field of study. To obtain a PhD, one must usually contribute something original and important to existing research, so the final paper (which is the length of a book) includes both references to existing prior research and, more importantly, a detailed discussion and analysis of the PhD candidate’s research contributions in her or his field.