Galtung essays in peace research

“Imagine that medical practitioners would not distinguish between invasive surgery to remove malignant tumors and surgery to correct one's vision. Imagine also that while surgeries are practiced, no research and no evaluation of their differential effectiveness accompany them. The field would be considered neither very serious nor very trustworthy. Luckily enough, such a state of affairs does not describe the field of medicine, but it comes pretty close to describing the field of peace education. First, too many profoundly different kinds of activities taking place in an exceedingly wide array of contexts are all lumped under the same category label of "peace education" as if they belong together. Second, for whatever reason, the field's scholarship in the form of theorizing, research and program evaluation badly lags behind practice… In the absence of clarity of what peace education really is, or how its different varieties relate to each other, it is unclear how experience with one variant of peace education in one region can usefully inform programs in another region.”

The increasing international and national trust in civil society organizations and appreciating their role in service delivery in developing countries is a stepping stone for the enhancement of this function. The World Bank (World Bank, 2005a) appreciates the civil society as one of its key partners in working with governments to end poverty and promote sustainable development. The World Bank  has intensified its involvement of civil society at national and regional levels in various ways.. For instance “a review of loans approved in fiscal year 2004 found that 194 projects, or 74 percent of the 262 projects approved by the Bank’s Board, had some form of civil society participation ().” Between 2002-2004, the World Bank worked with civil society groups in 100 developing countries in Africa, Europe and Asia to empower them and involve them in  its operations, consultations, and funding. Marcussen (1996) explains that “in 1991 World Bank-assisted projects in Africa were implemented by associated local NGOs, equaling 55 per cent of all loans and credits accorded Africa in that year, compared to only seven projects each in the years 1973 to 1987.” Marcussen argues that donors have the trust in NGOs as having the capacity to implement projects in a more efficient and cost-effective manner that surpasses that of governments and markets. The World Bank and other aid agencies [RS1]  as Marcussen writes, look at NGOs as having a comparative advantage over governments in the capacity to be innovative, experimental, adaptive, flexible, reach the poor in hard to reach areas, and to promote local participation in their service delivery function.

Galtung essays in peace research

galtung essays in peace research


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