Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) supported the scientific movement in education. He based teaching practices on empirical evidence and measurement.  Thorndike developed the theory of instrumental conditioning or the law of effect. The law of effect states that associations are strengthened when it is followed by something pleasing and associations are weakened when followed by something not pleasing. He also found that learning is done a little at a time or in increments, learning is an automatic process and all the principles of learning apply to all mammals. Thorndike's research with Robert Woodworth on the theory of transfer found that learning one subject will only influence your ability to learn another subject if the subjects are similar.  This discovery led to less emphasis on learning the classics because they found that studying the classics does not contribute to overall general intelligence.  Thorndike was one of the first to say that individual differences in cognitive tasks were due to how many stimulus response patterns a person had rather than a general intellectual ability.  He contributed word dictionaries that were scientifically based to determine the words and definitions used.  The dictionaries were the first to take into consideration the users maturity level.  He also integrated pictures and easier pronunciation guide into each of the definitions.  Thorndike contributed arithmetic books based on learning theory . He made all the problems more realistic and relevant to what was being studied, not just to improve the general intelligence .  He developed tests that were standardized to measure performance in school related subjects.  His biggest contribution to testing was the CAVD intelligence test which used a multidimensional approach to intelligence and the first to use a ratio scale.  His later work was on programmed instruction, mastery learning and computer-based learning:
Students may wish to acquire their field experience credits by participating in an off-campus experience. These experiences can be in research or teaching settings or in a facility devoted to caring for or helping people. The type of setting should be one which has the potential to broaden existing skills and understanding of the student or expose him/her to areas which are not adequately represented in previous training. As with other placements, students must submit a written contract at the time of registration describing the work to be accomplished for the credit. At the conclusion of the semester, the on-site supervisor will be asked to submit an evaluation of the student’s work and document the number of hours the student has worked on the project.